Saturday, May 31, 2014

PAP holds Orientation on the Psychology Licensure Exam

After the released of the Tables of Specifications  for the Psychologists and Psychometricians Licensure Exam, the Psychological Association of the Philippines (PAP) in partnership with the Professional Regulatory Board of Psychology will hold an Orientation on the Psychology Licensure Exam. When we called PAP Secretariat and clarifies if Psychometrician will also be covered they answered in the affirmative.

So it is encouraged that those who are taking the licensure exam this October 2014 should attend this very important orientation to know more about the contents and approaches that will be used for the said exams. The orientation seminar is open to Psychology faculty, students and alumni, specifically for those taking the licensure exam.

Registration fee will be collected to those who will attend the orientation.

PAP Members who preregistered  - PhP 300.00 
PAP Members walk-in                     PhP 400.00

Non PAP Members preregistered     PhP 400.00
Non PAP Members walk-in              Php 500.00

To register please take note of the following:

1) Register on or before June 13, 2014

2) Pay registration fee via BPI Current Account :
Psychological Association of the Philippines
CA# 0421 0208 68

3) Email deposit slip with your name (participant/s name) to

4) Wait for PAP Secretariat acknowledgement.

5) Conctact PAP Secretariat - 0915 847 7727 (Globe) or Tel nos. 453 8257

Details of the orientation

Orientation on the Psychology Licensure Exam
18 June 2014
9:00 - 11:30 AM
Philippine Social Science Council (PSSC) Auditorium
PSSC Bldg., Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman Quezon City
PAP Secretariat - 0915 847 7727 (Globe) or Tel nos. 453 8257

Check Google map here -,Diliman,+Quezon+City

PSSC is located at Commonwealth Avenue, among the landmarks:

1) Few meters away from Philcoa - Philippine Coconut Authority

2) Across UP Diliman - College of Human Kinetics

3) PSSC Building is near Iglesia ni Kristo/New Era University 

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Tables of Specifications for Psychometricians Licensure Exam

A. Psychological Assessment

No. of items
1. Apply technical concepts, basic principles and topics of psychometrics and psychological assessment.
2. Describe the process, research methods and statistics used in test development and standardization.
3. Identify the importance, benefits and limitations of psychological assessment
4. Identify, assess, and evaluate the methods and tools of psychological assessment relative to the specific purpose and context: school, hospital, industry, and community.
5. Evaluate the administration and scoring procedures of intelligence and objective personality tests and other alternative forms of tests.
6. Apply ethical considerations and standards in the various dimensions of psychological assessment.

B. Theories of Personality

No. of items
1. Recognize and differentiate basic theories and perspectives of personality.
2. Identify the socio-cultural and environmental factors that may impact personality.
3. Identify relevant Filipino/indigenous concepts in understanding personality.

C. Abnormal Psychology

No. of items
1. Distinguish between pathological and non-pathological manifestations of behavior.
2. Recognize common psychological disorders given specific symptoms.
3. Use major psychological theories, particularly the commonly recognized ones, in explaining how psychological problems are caused and how they develop.
4. Identify the socio-cultural factors that may impact on problem-identification and diagnosis of abnormal behavior.
5. Apply appropriate ethical principles and standards in diagnosing cases of abnormal behavior.


D. Industrial Psychology

No. of items
1. Discuss the major considerations and principles of employee selection.
2. Describe the process and principles in employee training and development.
3. Apply the major principles in performance evaluation.
4. Apply the major theories of motivation in designing and administering rewards.
5. Apply basic theories in team dynamics.
6. Differentiate the various functions involved in Human Resource Management.
7. Recognize issues of work life balance and well-being in the workplace.


Refer to this link -

Tuesday, May 20, 2014

Notes on MMPI

Class Notes MMPI

Source -

Friday, May 16, 2014

JUST RELEASED! Tables of Specifications for Psychometrician Licensure Exam

Finally PRC has released  last 8 May 2014 the Tables of Specifications for Psychometrician Licensure Exam. The Table of Specifications provide specific items or topics that the four subjects will be covered in the licensure exam. Also it  assigns particular weight in percentage and its corresponding number of items in the exam.

Now reviewer will have more focus on what to cover for their review. Although the topics are still broad it is advised that the CHED Course Specifications for Psychology should be referred to as well,  check the link at -

We have made infographics for the two subjects ahead of this post with these links:


Note - this document is not yet available at the PRC/Psychology Board website as of posting (12 AM, 16 May 2014)

Thursday, May 15, 2014

What to consider reviewing on Theories of Personality?

Could you recognize and name these psychologists? How many can you name and  their theory on personality? I hope you also recognize our very own, founder of Sikolohiyang Pilipino.

We already made several postings about Theories of Personality on this blog.

Visit the following links to read more about it:

CHED Course Specification (this should also serve as basis on topics to review for this subject) 

Video lecture:

Textbook and books we are reading

Just use the search button found on the right side of this blog to find more blog posts on this subject.

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Particular Emphasis on Psychological Assessment on your Review

Among the four subjects for the Psychometrician Licensure Exam, it is highly probable that Psychological Assessment will have the most items compared to the other three subjects: Abnormal Psychology, Theories of Personality and Industrial Psychology.

Well after all, the licensure exam is for Psychometrician and those who will be licensed should be adept in Psychometrics, Psychological Testing  and Psychological Assessment.

So if the rest of the subjects would be at 100 items each, with a percentage of 20%, then Psychological Assessment would be in the range of 130-160 items at 40%.

So what are the most likely topics from this subject? Kindly refer to this earlier post here -

Also, be sure to cover the following areas shown in the infographics.

Please tag and share this info to your friends and other reviewers.

Tuesday, May 13, 2014

MMPI Video Lectures - Validity and Clinical Scales

image source -

Validity Scales

The validity scales in all versions of the MMPI-2 (MMPI-2 and RF) contain three basic types of validity measures: those that were designed to detect non-responding or inconsistent responding (CNS, VRIN, TRIN), those designed to detect when clients are over reporting or exaggerating the prevalence or severity of psychological symptoms (F, Fb, Fp, FBS), and those designed to detect when test-takers are under-reporting or downplaying psychological symptoms (L, K, S). A new addition to the validity scales for the MMPI-2-RF includes an over reporting scale of somatic symptoms scale (Fs).
AbbreviationNew in versionDescriptionAssesses
CNS1"Cannot Say"Questions not answered
L1LieClient "faking good"
F1InfrequencyClient "faking bad" (in first half of test)
Fb2Back FClient "faking bad" (in last half of test)
VRIN2Variable Response Inconsistencyanswering similar/opposite question pairs inconsistently
TRIN2True Response Inconsistencyanswering questions all true/all false
F-K2F minus Khonesty of test responses/not faking good or bad
S2Superlative Self-Presentationimproving upon K scale, "appearing excessively good"
Fp2F-PsychopathologyFrequency of presentation in clinical setting
Fs2-RFInfrequent Somatic ResponseOverreporting of somatic symptoms
Source -

Note - Another Version on Validity - more streamlined

The 4 Validity Scales

The MMPI-2 is not a valid measure of a person’s psychopathology or behavior if the person taking the test does so in a way that is not honest or frank. A person may decide, for whatever reasons, to overreport (exaggerate) or underreport (deny) the behavior being assessed by the test.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) contains four validity scales designed to measure a person’s test-taking attitude and approach to the test:
  • Lie (L) – The Lie scale is intended to identify individuals who are deliberately trying to avoid answering the MMPI honestly and in a frank manner. The scale measures attitudes and practices that are culturally laudable, but rarely found in most people. In other words, people who make these items are often trying to make themselves look like a better person than they really are (or that anybody is). The scale contains 15 items.
  • F – The F scale (the “F” does not stand for anything, although it is mistakenly sometimes referred to as the Infrequency or Frequency scale) is intended to detect unusual or atypical ways of answering the test items, like if a person were to randomly fill out the test. It taps a number of strange thoughts, peculiar experiences, feelings of isolation and alienation, and a number of unlikely or contradictory beliefs, expectations and self-descriptions. If a person answers too many of the F and Fb scale items incorrectly, it will invalidate the entire test. Contrary to some descriptions of the scale, F scale items are scattered throughout the entire test up until around item 360. The scale contains 60 items.
  • Back F (Fb) – The Back F scale measures the same issues as the F scale, except only during the last half of the test. The scale has 40 items.
  • K – The K scale is designed to identify psychopathology in people who otherwise would have profiles within the normal range. It measures self-control, and family and interpersonal relationships, and people who score highly on this scale are often seen as being defensive. The scale contains 30 items.
There are additional content and validity scales that have been developed independently from the core MMPI, but often scored by a psychologist who is administering the test. This article describes only these core scales used in the MMPI-2.


Clinical Scales

The MMPI has 10 clinical scales that are used to indicate different psychological conditions. Despite the names given to each scale, they are not a pure measure since many conditions have overlapping symptoms. Because of this, most psychologists simply refer to each scale by number.


10 Scales of the MMPI

The MMPI has 10 clinical scales that are used to indicate different psychological conditions. Despite the names given to each scale, they are not a pure measure since many conditions have overlapping symptoms. Because of this, most psychologists simply refer to each scale by number.
Scale 1 – Hypochondriasis: This scale was designed to asses a neurotic concern over bodily functioning. The 32-items on this scale concern somatic symptoms and physical well being. The scale was originally developed to identify patients displaying the symptoms of hypochondria.
Scale 2 – Depression: This scale was originally designed to identify depression, characterized by poor morale, lack of hope in the future, and a general dissatisfaction with one's own life situation. Very high scores may indicate depression, while moderate scores tend to reveal a general dissatisfaction with one’s life.
Scale 3 – Hysteria: The third scale was originally designed to identify those who display hysteria in stressful situations. Those who are well educated and of a high social class tend to score higher on this scale. Women also tend to score higher than men on this scale.
Scale 4 - Psychopathic Deviate: Originally developed to identify psychopathic patients, this scale measures social deviation, lack of acceptance of authority, and amorality. This scale can be thought of as a measure of disobedience. High scorers tend to be more rebellious, while low scorers are more accepting of authority. Despite the name of this scale, high scorers are usually diagnosed with a personality disorder rather than a psychotic disorder.
Scale 5 – Masculinity/Femininity: This scale was designed by the original author’s to identify homosexual tendencies, but was found to be largely ineffective. High scores on this scale are related to factors such as intelligence, socioeconomic status, and education. Women tend to score low on this scale.
Scale 6 – Paranoia: This scale was originally developed to identify patients with paranoid symptoms such as suspiciousness, feelings of persecution, grandiose self-concepts, excessive sensitivity, and rigid attitudes. Those who score high on this scale tend to have paranoid symptoms.
Scale 7 – Psychasthenia: This diagnostic label is no longer used today and the symptoms described on this scale are more reflective of obsessive-compulsive disorder. This scale was originally used to measure excessive doubts, compulsions, obsessions, and unreasonable fears.
Scale 8 – Schizophrenia: This scale was originally developed to identify schizophrenic patients and reflects a wide variety of areas including bizarre thought processes and peculiar perceptions, social alienation, poor familial relationships, difficulties in concentration and impulse control, lack of deep interests, disturbing questions of self-worth and self-identity, and sexual difficulties. This scale is considered difficult to interpret.
Scale 9 – Hypomania: This scale was developed to identify characteristics of hypomania such as elevated mood, accelerated speech and motor activity, irritability, flight of ideas, and brief periods of depression.
Scale 0 – Social Introversion: This scale was developed later than the other nine scales as is designed to assess a person’s tendency to withdraw from social contacts and responsibilities.

Sunday, May 11, 2014

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - MMPI

From Wikipedia

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely used and researched standardizedcpsychometric test of adult  personality  and  psychopathology.[1]   Psychologists and other mental health professionals use various versions of the MMPI to develop treatment plans; assist with differential diagnosis; help answer legal questions (forensic psychology); screen job candidates during the personnel selection process; or as part of a therapeutic assessment procedure.[2]
 The original MMPI, first published by the University of Minnesota Press in 1943, was replaced by an updated version, the MMPI-2, in 1989. A version for adolescents, the MMPI-A, was published in 1992. An alternative version of the test, the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), published in 2008, retains some aspects of the traditional MMPI assessment strategy, but adopts a different theoretical approach to personality test development.

Clinical scales[edit]

Scale 1 (AKA the Hypochondriasis Scale) : Measures a person's perception and preoccupation with their health and health issues., 
Scale 2 (AKA the Depression Scale) : Measures a person's depressive symptoms level., 
Scale 3 (AKA the Hysteria Scale) : Measures the emotionality of a person., 
Scale 4 (AKA the PsychopathicDeviate Scale) : Measures a person's need for control or their rebellion against control., 
Scale 5 (AKA the Femininity/Masculinity Scale) : Measures a stereotype of a person and how they compare. For men it would be the Marlboro man, for women it would be June Cleaver or Donna Reed., 
Scale 6 (AKA the Paranoia Scale) : Measures a person's inability to trust., 
Scale 7 (AKA the Psychasthenia Scale) : Measures a person's anxiety levels and tendencies., 
Scale 8 (AKA the SchizophreniaScale) : Measures a person's unusual/odd cognitive, perceptual, and emotional experiences, 
Scale 9 (AKA the Mania Scale) : Measures a person's energy., 
Scale 0 (AKA the Social Introversion Scale) : Measures whether people enjoy and are comfortable being around other people.
The original clinical scales were designed to measure common diagnoses of the era.
NumberAbbreviationDescriptionWhat is measuredNo. of items
1HsHypochondriasisConcern with bodily symptoms32
2DDepressionDepressive Symptoms57
3HyHysteriaAwareness of problems and vulnerabilities60
4PdPsychopathic DeviateConflict, struggle, anger, respect for society's rules50
5MFMasculinity/FemininityStereotypical masculine or feminine interests/behaviors56
6PaParanoiaLevel of trust, suspiciousness, sensitivity40
7PtPsychastheniaWorry, Anxiety, tension, doubts, obsessiveness48
8ScSchizophreniaOdd thinking and social alienation78
9MaHypomaniaLevel of excitability46
0SiSocial IntroversionPeople orientation69
Codetypes are a combination of the one, two or three (and according to a few authors even four), highest-scoring clinical scales (ex. 4, 8, 2, = 482). Codetypes are interpreted as a single, wider ranged elevation, rather than interpreting each scale individually.



The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), a revision of the original MMPI (1943) was published by the University of Minnesota Press in 1989 and revised in 2001.  Updates were introduced in 2003 (The Restructured Clinical [RC] Scales) and 2006 (The Symptom Validity [FBS] Scale) documented in a test monograph in 2009.   The MMPI-2 is a self–report instrument designed to aid in the assessment of a wide range of clinical conditions. It is used in nonclinical settings to assess persons who are candidates for high-risk public safety positions (police officers, nuclear power plant personnel, firefighters, pilots, and air-traffic controllers), and in criminal and civil forensic settings. 

Age Range: 18 years and older
Reading Level: 5th grade (Lexile average), 4.6 grade (Flesch-Kincaid)
Administration: Online, Computer, CD or Paper and pencil 
Completion Time: 60-90 minutes
Forms: 567 True-False items
Norms: A nationally representative community sample of adult men and women (1,138 males and 1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.)
Scoring Options: Q-global Scoring and Reporting, Q Local Software, Mail-in Scoring Service, Hand Scoring
Report Option: Extended Score Reports, Adult Clinical Interpretive Reports, Forensic Settings Reports, Personnel Interp. and Adjustment Ratings Reports
Publication Date: 1989, 2001 (revised), updated 2003 and 2009
Publisher: University of Minnesota Press


1. I like mechanics magazines
2. I have a good appetite
3. I wake up fresh & rested most mornings
4. I think I would like the work of a librarian
5. I am easily awakened by noise
6. I like to read newspaper articles on crime
7. My hands and feet are usually warm enough
8. My daily life is full of things that keep me interested
9. I am about as able to work as I ever was
10. There seems to be a lump in my throat much of the time
11. A person should try to understand his dreams and be guided by or take warning from them
12. I enjoy detective or mystery stories
13. I work under a great deal of tension
14. I have diarrhea once a month or more
15. Once in a while I think of things too bad to talk about
16. I am sure I get a raw deal from life
17. My father was a good man
18. I am very seldom troubled by constipation
19. When I take a new, I like to be tipped off on whom should be gotten next to
20. My sex life is satisfactory

Source -

Other references:


What Is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory?
A Look at the History and Use of the MMPI  by Kendra Cherry