Sunday, August 17, 2014

Structured Personality Tests

The need to measure emotional functioning to evaluate large number of people and screen out those unfit for military service provided the impetus for the development of personality tests.

Self-report questionnaires were used that provide a list of statements and required subjects to respond in some way to each - marking True or False that applies to them. They are asked to respond to a structured or objective method of personality assessment. Personality tests characterized by structure and lack of ambiguity, where a clear and definitive stimulus is provided, and the requirements of the subject are evident and specific.

Nonintellective aspects of human behavior, typically distinguished from mental abilities  are called personality characteristics.

Personality - relatively stable and distinctive patterns of behavior that characterize an individual and his/her reactions to the environment.

Personality traits - relatively enduring dispositions - tendencies to act, think, or feel in certain manner in any given circumstances and that distinguish one person from another.

Personality types - general descriptions of people (ex. avoiding types - low social interest and avoiding social situations)

Personality states - emotional reactions that vary from one situation or another.

Self-concept - a person's self-definition or  according to Carl Rogers (1959) an organized and relatively consitent set of assumptions that a person has about him or herself.

Alfred Binet hypothesized that a person's pattern of intellectual functioning might reveal information about personality factors.

Strategies of Structured Personality Test Construction

1) Deductive strategies use reason and deductive logic to determine the meaning of a test response.

2) Logical content method has test designers select items on the basis of simple face validity.

3) Theoretical approach is guided by a particular psychological theory.

4) Empirical strategies rely on data collection and statistical analyses to determine themeaning of a test response or the nature of personality and psychopathology

5)  Empirical strategies retain self-report features of the deductive strategies - views, opinion, feelings

6)  Empirical strategies use experimental research to determine empirically themeaning of a test response

7) Criterion group approach items are choosen to distinguish a group of individuals with certain characteristics - the criterion group  from a control group.

8) Factor analytic approach uses the statistical technique of factor analysis to determine the meaning of test items.

9) Examples of tests of Logical Content Strategy- Woodworth Personal Data Sheet, Early Multidimensional Logical Content Scales, Mooney Problem Checklist

10) Examples of tests of Theoretical approach strategy - Edwards Personal Preference Schedule, Personality Research Form,  Jackson Personality Inventory

11)Examples of tests of Criterion Group Strategy -  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, California Psychological Inventory 3rd Edition

12) Examples of tests of Factor Analytic Strategy - Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire, Clinical Analysis Questionnaire

13) Examples of tests of Combination Strategies - NEO Personality Inventory (Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openess)/ NEO-PI-Revised

14) Frequently Used Measures of Positive Personality Traits
a) Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
b) General Self-Efficacy Scale
c) Ego Resiliency Scale
d) Dispositional Resilience Scale
e) Hope Scale
f) Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R)
g) Satisfaction with Life Scale
h) Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
i) Coping with Intervention for Stressful Situations
j) Core Self-Evaluations

Source - Psychological Testing, Principles, Applications, and Issues by Kaplan and Saccuzzo, 6th Ed

Structured Personality Tests (PowerPoint)

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