Wednesday, August 6, 2014

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales and SBI Scales for Early Childhood

Source - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanford%E2%80%93Binet_Intelligence_Scales

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is an individually administered intelligence test that was revised from the original Binet-Simon Scale by Lewis M. Terman, a psychologist at Stanford University. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is now in its Fifth Edition. It is a cognitive ability andintelligence test that is used to diagnose developmental or intellectual deficiencies in young children. The test measures five weighted factors and consists of both verbal and nonverbal subtests. The five factors being tested are knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory, and fluid reasoning.
The development of the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales initiated the modern field of intelligence testing and was one of the first examples of an adaptive test. The test originated in France, then was revised in the United States. It was initially created by the French psychologist Alfred Binet, who---following the introduction of a law mandating universal education by the French government---undertook to develop a method of identifying "slow" children for their placement in special education programs (rather than removing them to asylums as "sick").[1] As Binet indicated, case studies might be more detailed and helpful, but the time required to test many people would be excessive. In 1916, at Stanford University, the psychologist Lewis Terman released a revised examination which became known as the "Stanford–Binet test".

The Modern Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale[edit]

Just as it was used when Binet first developed the IQ test, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fifth Edition (SB5) is still rooted in the schooling process to assess intelligence. It continuously and efficiently assesses all levels of ability in individuals with a broader range in age. It is also capable of measuring multiple dimensions of abilities (Ruf, 2003).
The SB5 can be administered to individuals two through eighty-five plus years of age. There are ten subsets included in this revision including both verbal and nonverbal domains. Five factors are also incorporated in this scale, which are directly related to Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) hierarchical model of cognitive abilities. These factors include fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory (Bain & Allin, 2005). Many of the familiar picture absurdities, vocabulary, memory for sentences, and verbal absurdities still remain from the previous editions (Janzen, Obrzut, & Marusiak, 2003) however with more modern artwork and item content for the revised fifth edition.
For every verbal subtest that is used there is a nonverbal counterpart across all factors. These nonverbal tasks consist of making movement responses such as pointing or assembling manipulatives (Bain & Allin, 2005). These counterparts have been included in order to address the language-reduced assessments in multicultural societies. Depending on age and ability, administration can range from fifteen minutes to an hour and fifteen minutes.
The fifth edition incorporated a new scoring system, which can provide a wide range of information such as four intelligence score composites, five factor indices, and ten subtest scores. Additional scoring information includes percentile ranks, age equivalents, and a change-sensitive score (Janzen, Obrzut, & Marusiak, 2003). Extended IQ scores and gifted composite scores are available with the SB5 in order to optimize the assessment for gifted programs (Ruf, 2003). In order to reduce errors and increase diagnostic precision, scores are obtained electronically through the use of computers now.
The standardization sample for the SB5 included 4,800 participants varying in age, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic region, and socioeconomic level (Bain & Allin, 2005).

Reliability of the Modern Scale[edit]

Several reliability tests have been performed on the SB5 including split-half reliability, standard error of measurement, plotting of test information curves, test-retest stability, and inter-scorer agreement. On average, the IQ scores for this scale have been found to be quite stable across time (Janzen, Obrzut, & Marusiak, 2003). Internal consistency was tested by split-half reliability and was reported to be substantial and comparable to other cognitive batteries (Bain & Allin, 2005). The median interscorer correlation was found to be .90 on average (Janzen, Obrzut, & Marusiak, 2003). The SB5 has also been found to have great precision at advanced levels of performance meaning that the test is especially useful in testing children for giftedness (Bain & Allin, 2005). There have only been a small amount of practice effects and familiarity of testing procedures with retest reliability, however, these have proven to be insignificant. Readministration of the SB5 can occur in a six-month interval rather than one year due to the small mean differences in reliability (Bain & Allin, 2005).

Validity of the Modern Scale[edit]

Content validity has been found based on the professional judgments Roid received concerning fairness of items and item content as well as items concerning the assessment of giftedness (Bain & Allin, 2005). With an examination of age trends, construct validity was supported along with empirical justification of a more substantial gloading for the SB5 compared to previous editions. The potential for a variety of comparisons, especially for within or across factors and verbal/nonverbal domains, has been appreciated with the scores received from the SB5 (Bain & Allin, 2005).

Score classification[edit]

Main article: IQ classification
The test publisher includes suggested score classifications in the test manual.
Stanford-Binet Fifth Edition (SB5) classification[2]
IQ Range ("deviation IQ")IQ Classification
145–160Very gifted or highly advanced
130–144Gifted or very advanced
120–129Superior
110–119High average
90–109Average
80–89Low average
70–79Borderline impaired or delayed
55–69Mildly impaired or delayed
40–54Moderately impaired or delayed
The classifications of scores used in the Fifth Edition differ from those used in earlier versions of the test.


Below text came from the publisher of the modern day version of the test.

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Source - http://riverpub.com/products/sb5/details.html 
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5), Fifth Edition
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
Author:
Gale H. Roid
Type:Cognitive ability assessment
Purpose:Individually administered assessment of intelligence and cognitive abilities
Measures:Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, Working Memory
Ages:2 to 85+ years
Times:Approximately 5 minutes per subtest
Scoring:SB5 ScoringPro Software
Restriction Level:HighExaminer Qualifications



Details

General Information
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition(SB5) is a contemporary assessment with a rich tradition, which began in 1916 when Lewis Terman completed his American revision of the Binet-Simon Scale (1905, 1908). Through various editions, this assessment has become widely known and is acknowledged as the standard for intelligence measurement.
As a battery of cognitive tests, the SB5 advances the assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the cognitive processes of students who may be evaluated for learning disabilities. The SB5 supports early prediction of emerging learning disabilities in children as young as four years old. Author research has identified special predictive composite scores for identifying both Reading and Math disabilities. Information on these composites is available in the Interpretive Manual. As a battery of cognitive tests, the SB5 advances the assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the cognitive processes of students who may be evaluated for learning disabilities. The SB5 supports early prediction of emerging learning disabilities in children as young as four years old. Author research has identified special predictive composite scores for identifying both Reading and Math disabilities. Information on these composites is available in the Interpretive Manual
The SB5 provides comprehensive coverage of five factors of cognitive ability:
  • Fluid Reasoning
  • Knowledge
  • Quantitative Reasoning
  • Visual-Spatial Processing
  • Working Memory

Uses
The SB5 helps to diagnose a wide variety of developmental disabilities and exceptionalities and may also be useful in:
  • Clinical and neuropsychological assessment
  • Early childhood assessment
  • Psychoeducational evaluations for special education placements
  • Adult social security and workers? compensation evaluations
  • Providing information for interventions such as IFSPs, IEPs, career assessment, industrial selection, and adult neuropsychological treatment
  • Forensic contexts
  • Research on abilities and aptitudes

Administration
Testing begins in Item Book 1 with the routing subtests. The start points for two routing subtests in Item Book 1 are determined by age or estimated ability level. Nonverbal Fluid Reasoning routes to the appropriate difficulty level in Item Book 2 (Nonverbal), while Verbal Knowledge does so for Item Book 3 (Verbal). The remaining eight subtests (four nonverbal and four verbal) are then measured in Item Books 2 and 3.

Scoring
The SB5 can be scored by hand or scored with the SB5 ScoringProScoringPro is a Windows®-based software program that provides consistency in raw score conversion, an extended score report, a graphical report, and a brief, narrative summary report with guidelines and suggestions based on well-established principles of assessment. The report can be exported to a word-processing file for editing as necessary.

Interpretation
At the most granular level of the norm-referenced scores are the 10 subtest scores (scaled scores have a mean of 10, SD of 3, score range 1?19). These subtest scores combine to form four types of composite scores: factor index, domain, abbreviated, and full scale (each with scaled score means of 100, SD of 15, score range 40?160). Two subtests (one verbal, the other its nonverbal complement) combine to form each factor index. There are two domain scales: Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) (combines the five nonverbal subtests) and Verbal IQ (VIQ) (combines the five verbal subtests). Two routing subtests combine to form the Abbreviated Battery IQ (ABIQ). Finally, the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) combines all 10 subtests. The Change-Sensitive Scores (CSS) use item response theory scaling to convert the raw score totals on the composite scales described above into criterion-referenced levels of ability. These scales, as with the norm-referenced scores, have excellent measurement properties. Because the CSSs reference absolute levels of ability, they provide a way to compare changes in an individual?s scores over time.

Average scores range from the 2-year-old level (about 430) to the adult level (about 520). All of the SB5 items have been calibrated to this scale, and the difficulty of each item has a location along that scale. The scores are particularly useful for the evaluation of extreme performance levels. The SB5 also offers age-equivalent scores derived from CSSs, along with a CSS-based abbreviated battery score making use of raw scores from the Nonverbal Reasoning and Verbal Knowledge subtests. Finally, the Interpretive Manual describes a hand scoring procedure for deriving an Extended IQ (EXIQ) that allows for scores between both 10?39 and 161?225.

Technical Information
Normative data for the SB5 were gathered from 4,800 individuals between the ages of 2 and 85+ years. The normative sample closely matches the 2000 U.S. Census. Bias reviews were conducted on all items for the following variables: gender, ethnicity, culture, religion, region, and socioeconomic status. Additionally, the SB5 was co-normed with the Bender® Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, Second Edition (page 125), and the Test Observation Form (page 142). Reliabilities for the SB5 are very high. For the FSIQ, NVIQ, and VIQ, reliabilities range from .95 to .98 (average internal consistency composite reliability, across all age groups). Reliabilities for the Factor Indexes range from .90 to .92. For the 10 subtests, reliabilities range from .84 to .89. Concurrent and criterion validity data were obtained using the SB-IV,SB-LM, WJ III®, UNIT?, Bender-Gestalt II, WPPSI-R®,WAIS®-III, WIAT®-II, and WISC-III®.


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Source - http://riverpub.com/products/earlySB5/details.html
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood (Early SB5)
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood
Author:
Gale H. Roid
Type:Cognitive ability assessment for early childhood
Purpose:Individually administered assessment of intelligence and cognitive abilities
Measures:Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, Working Memory
Restriction Level:High
Ages:2 to 7-3 years (2 to 5-11 years for full battery; 6 to 7-3 years for abbreviated battery)
Times:Full Battery: 30-50 minutes; Abbreviated Battery: 15-20 minutes
Scoring:SB5 ScoringPro



THIS TEST INCLUDES CERTAIN MANIPULATIVES WITH SMALL PARTS THAT MAY PRESENT A CHOKING HAZARD FOR CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF EIGHT. DO NOT ALLOW THE CHILD TO PLACE ANY MANIPULATIVE IN THEIR MOUTH. A TRAINED ADULT EXAMINER MUST ALWAYS CLOSELY SUPERVISE THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE TEST AND USE OF MANIPULATIVES BY CHILDREN.


Details
Summary
Valid and reliable assessment of intellectual functioning is an important need in many assessment practices, and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood, Fifth Edition (Early SB5) provides a psychometrically superior, accessible, and cost-effective test of intelligence for use with young children.  The Early SB5 is a specialized version of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5) for use with young children ages 2.0 through 7.3 years.
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Administration
Administration time varies.  The estimated time is 30-50 minutes for the full battery and 15-20 minutes for the abbreviated battery.
The Early SB5, like the SB5, has 10 subtests.  Two routing subtests (Nonverbal Fluid Reasoning and Verbal Knowledge) cover the age range 2.0 through 7.3, while the remaining eight subtests offer scores in the preschool range, from 2.0 through 5.11.  As with the SB5, testing begins in Item Book 1 with the two routing subtests, which are retained in their entirety.  However, all remaining subtests into which the first two subtests route are contained in Item Book 2, with only the most difficult levels of items dropping across those subtests.  Dropping these more difficult items will generally have no impact on the scores of the young children typically assessed with the Early SB5.  However, because of the changes, assessment for intellectual giftedness would require use of only the two routing subtests or, better yet, the complete SB5.
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Technical Qualities
Standardization
The Early SB5 is a specialized version of the SB5, and thus shares its technical qualities.  A normative sample of 1,800 individuals was used in the age range addressed by the Early SB5 (ages 20. through 7).  The normative sample closely matches the 2000 U.S. Census (education level based on 1999 data). Bias reviews were conducted on all items for the following variables: gender, ethnicity, culture, religion, region, and socioeconomic status.  The Early SB5 was co-normed with the Bender® Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, Second Edition (beginning at age 4) and theeTest Observation Form (beginning at age 2).
Reliability and Validity
Reliabilities for the Early SB5 are very high for scores across its age range: FSIQ (.97-.98), NVIQ and VIQ (.94.96), factor indexes (.90-.92), and subtests (.81-.92).  Concurrent and criterion validity data were obtained using the SB IV, SM L-M, WJIII®, UNIT, Bender®-Gestalt II, WPPSI-R®, WAIT®-II, and WISC-III®.
Resources
Use of the Test Observation Checklist by Glen P. Alyward and Andrew D. Carson