Sunday, May 11, 2014

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - MMPI

From Wikipedia

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely used and researched standardizedcpsychometric test of adult  personality  and  psychopathology.[1]   Psychologists and other mental health professionals use various versions of the MMPI to develop treatment plans; assist with differential diagnosis; help answer legal questions (forensic psychology); screen job candidates during the personnel selection process; or as part of a therapeutic assessment procedure.[2]
 The original MMPI, first published by the University of Minnesota Press in 1943, was replaced by an updated version, the MMPI-2, in 1989. A version for adolescents, the MMPI-A, was published in 1992. An alternative version of the test, the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), published in 2008, retains some aspects of the traditional MMPI assessment strategy, but adopts a different theoretical approach to personality test development.

Clinical scales[edit]

Scale 1 (AKA the Hypochondriasis Scale) : Measures a person's perception and preoccupation with their health and health issues., 
Scale 2 (AKA the Depression Scale) : Measures a person's depressive symptoms level., 
Scale 3 (AKA the Hysteria Scale) : Measures the emotionality of a person., 
Scale 4 (AKA the PsychopathicDeviate Scale) : Measures a person's need for control or their rebellion against control., 
Scale 5 (AKA the Femininity/Masculinity Scale) : Measures a stereotype of a person and how they compare. For men it would be the Marlboro man, for women it would be June Cleaver or Donna Reed., 
Scale 6 (AKA the Paranoia Scale) : Measures a person's inability to trust., 
Scale 7 (AKA the Psychasthenia Scale) : Measures a person's anxiety levels and tendencies., 
Scale 8 (AKA the SchizophreniaScale) : Measures a person's unusual/odd cognitive, perceptual, and emotional experiences, 
Scale 9 (AKA the Mania Scale) : Measures a person's energy., 
Scale 0 (AKA the Social Introversion Scale) : Measures whether people enjoy and are comfortable being around other people.
The original clinical scales were designed to measure common diagnoses of the era.
NumberAbbreviationDescriptionWhat is measuredNo. of items
1HsHypochondriasisConcern with bodily symptoms32
2DDepressionDepressive Symptoms57
3HyHysteriaAwareness of problems and vulnerabilities60
4PdPsychopathic DeviateConflict, struggle, anger, respect for society's rules50
5MFMasculinity/FemininityStereotypical masculine or feminine interests/behaviors56
6PaParanoiaLevel of trust, suspiciousness, sensitivity40
7PtPsychastheniaWorry, Anxiety, tension, doubts, obsessiveness48
8ScSchizophreniaOdd thinking and social alienation78
9MaHypomaniaLevel of excitability46
0SiSocial IntroversionPeople orientation69
Codetypes are a combination of the one, two or three (and according to a few authors even four), highest-scoring clinical scales (ex. 4, 8, 2, = 482). Codetypes are interpreted as a single, wider ranged elevation, rather than interpreting each scale individually.



The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), a revision of the original MMPI (1943) was published by the University of Minnesota Press in 1989 and revised in 2001.  Updates were introduced in 2003 (The Restructured Clinical [RC] Scales) and 2006 (The Symptom Validity [FBS] Scale) documented in a test monograph in 2009.   The MMPI-2 is a self–report instrument designed to aid in the assessment of a wide range of clinical conditions. It is used in nonclinical settings to assess persons who are candidates for high-risk public safety positions (police officers, nuclear power plant personnel, firefighters, pilots, and air-traffic controllers), and in criminal and civil forensic settings. 

Age Range: 18 years and older
Reading Level: 5th grade (Lexile average), 4.6 grade (Flesch-Kincaid)
Administration: Online, Computer, CD or Paper and pencil 
Completion Time: 60-90 minutes
Forms: 567 True-False items
Norms: A nationally representative community sample of adult men and women (1,138 males and 1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.)
Scoring Options: Q-global Scoring and Reporting, Q Local Software, Mail-in Scoring Service, Hand Scoring
Report Option: Extended Score Reports, Adult Clinical Interpretive Reports, Forensic Settings Reports, Personnel Interp. and Adjustment Ratings Reports
Publication Date: 1989, 2001 (revised), updated 2003 and 2009
Publisher: University of Minnesota Press


1. I like mechanics magazines
2. I have a good appetite
3. I wake up fresh & rested most mornings
4. I think I would like the work of a librarian
5. I am easily awakened by noise
6. I like to read newspaper articles on crime
7. My hands and feet are usually warm enough
8. My daily life is full of things that keep me interested
9. I am about as able to work as I ever was
10. There seems to be a lump in my throat much of the time
11. A person should try to understand his dreams and be guided by or take warning from them
12. I enjoy detective or mystery stories
13. I work under a great deal of tension
14. I have diarrhea once a month or more
15. Once in a while I think of things too bad to talk about
16. I am sure I get a raw deal from life
17. My father was a good man
18. I am very seldom troubled by constipation
19. When I take a new, I like to be tipped off on whom should be gotten next to
20. My sex life is satisfactory

Source -

Other references:


What Is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory?
A Look at the History and Use of the MMPI  by Kendra Cherry