Sunday, March 29, 2015

DSM5 Flowchart in Diagnosing Behavioral Problems in Child or Adolescent

DSM5 Flowchart in Diagnosing Behavioral Problems 
in Child or Adolescent

The Evolution of Psychosis in the DSM-5

Broadcast Date: January 29, 2014Course Code: A089
Raymond Y. Cho, MD, MSc
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Medical Director, STEP Clinic
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic of UPMC
Program Description:

This presentation will outline the broad historical context and detail the latest updates to psychosis nosology and the rationale for the changes. Also outlined will be changes that were considered but not fully incorporated such as explicit criteria targeting cognitive impairments.

Educational Objectives:
At the conclusion of the program, participants should be able to:
  • Detail the major changes to the schizophrenia diagnostic criteria.
  • Identify the psychopathological dimensions relevant for psychosis evaluation.
  • Discuss the relevance of cognitive disturbance to psychosis diagnoses.
Target Audience:
This is an introductory program for all mental health and health care professionals
Continuing Education Credits:              
ACT 48 – 2.0
CADC – 2.0
CPRP – 2.0
NCC – 2.0
PCHA – 2.0
Psychologist – 2.0

SW – 2.0

CEU – 0.2
We are pleased to offer Act 48, CADC,  CPRP, NCC, PCHA, Psychologist, Social Work and CEU credits for this webcast.  Please download the test and application form before viewing the webcast:  (Adobe PDF); (MS-Word) For ACT 48--Please download the packet here.
If you have questions, please contact
Jennifer Lichok at
Watch Webcast:

Note- Use internet explorer to view online.


Notes from the webinar:

1) Retains largely categorical approach

2) provides more dimensional framework
- psychopathology domains
- gradients of psychpathology (severe-more severe)

3) Addressing heterogeneity
- psychopathological domains
- removing schizophrenia subtypes

4) Diminished emphasis on first rank symptoms

5) Removal of subtypes

6) Catatonia used as specifier and standardized across diagnoses

7) Reduction of not otherwise specified (NOS)

Domains of Psychopathology
- hallucinations
- delusions
- disorganized thought
- disorganized or abnormal behavior (catatonia)
- negative symptoms (diminished emotional expression and avolition)

Saturday, March 28, 2015

MMSE: Mini–mental state examination

The mini–mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a sensitive, valid and reliable 30-point questionnaire that is used extensively in clinical and research settings to measure cognitive impairment. It is commonly used in medicine and allied health to screen for dementia. It is also used to estimate the severity and progression of cognitive impairment and to follow the course of cognitive changes in an individual over time; thus making it an effective way to document an individual's response to treatment. The MMSE's purpose has been, not on its own, intended to provide a diagnosis for any particular nosological entity.

It was originally introduced by Folstein et al. in 1975, in order to differentiate organic from functional psychiatric patients  but is very similar to, or even directly incorporates, tests which were in use previous to its publication.This test is not a mental status examination. The standard MMSE form which is currently published by Psychological Assessment Resources is based on its original 1975 conceptualization, with minor subsequent modifications by the authors.


1) Administration of the test takes between 5–10 minutes and examines functions including registration, attention and calculation, recall, language, ability to follow simple commands and orientation.

2) No specialized equipment or training for administration is required.

3) Has both validity and reliability for the diagnosis and longitudinal assessment of Alzheimer's Disease.

4) Short administration period and ease of use, it is useful for cognitive assessment in the clinician's office space or at the bedside.


1) Affected by demographic factors; age and education exert the greatest effect.

2) Lack of sensitivity to mild cognitive impairment and its failure to adequately discriminate patients with mild Alzheimer's Disease from normal patients.

3) Criticised regarding its insensitivity to progressive changes occurring with severe Alzheimer's Disease.

4) As the content of the MMSE is highly verbal, lacking sufficient items to adequately measure visuospatial and/or constructional praxis.

Other tests are also used, such as the Hodkinson abbreviated mental test score (1972, geriatrics, or the General Practitioner Assessment Of Cognition as well as longer formal tests for deeper analysis of specific deficits.

Read more -

Reference Card -

Thursday, March 26, 2015

Industrial Psychology: Assessment Center vs Development Centers

Various types of Psychometric/Assessment Tools used in I/O Psychology

Noor Fathima

An Assessment Center (AC) refers to setting up a complete assessment lab within the organisation. A variety of assessment techniques could be used to determine the existing potential, performance, skill level and attitudes of employees within the organisation. Assessments can also be used to predict future performance of employees and very often if done correctly determine not just organisation but industry trends. Trend Analysis is a sophisticated measure of organisation maturity; tragically very few HR professionals know how to calculate this even though they have sophisticated Assessment Centers within their organisation.

Commonly used Assessment Methodologies include:

  • Standardized Psychometric Instruments
  • Organisation Surveys
  • Structured Observation
  • Simulations
  • Behavioural Event Interviews (BEI)
  • Shadowing
  • 360 degree feedbacks

Which methodology to use or what combination of methodologies to be used to address current issues within the organisation is of critical importance. Furthermore choosing right parametric and no-parametric techniques for analysis is of prime importance. Thus while setting up an assessment center within the organisation the HR team must have a thorough knowledge about the various tools, techniques and analysis.

Today the market is flooded with a variety of assessment tools that can be used in training. However, choosing the right tool to measure the right competencies is a tricky process. Reliability, validity and other psychometric properties must be thoroughly studied before a tool can be adopted.

It is also very important to keep in mind that psychometric tools should NOT be used in isolation. They are always used as a battery of instruments in combination with other Evaluation Methodologies.

Assessment Centers are used during:

  • Recruitment and Selection
  • Training and Development
  • Performance Appraisal
  • Succession Planning
  • Program Evaluation
  • Organisation Development
  • Career Scaping
  • Campus Placements

Development Centers (DC) provides an end to end solution for building and sustaining capabilities within the organisation. An ‘assessment center’ is thus a part of the development center. Once inputs are got from the assessment, skill gaps identified, organisation benchmark determined then based on the current challenges and pain points employee engagements initiatives are untaken. Interventions are developed, standardized, piloted and finally implemented. It is important to follow an ‘Instructional Design System’ like the ADDIE (Analyse, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate) technique  while setting up an in-house development center.

Typically a Development Center would comprises of:

  • Assessment Center (AC)
  • Skill Enhancement Interventions (SEI)
  • Refresher courses / programs
  • Coaching (either one-on-one or group or online)
  • E Leaning
  • Post Assessments
  • Return on Investment (ROI) calibration

An accurate measure of the smooth function of a DC can be seen in evaluation stage, which focuses on application of learnings to the work environment, determining the current organisation maturity level and reporting in tangible and intangible forms the ROI to the organisation. Tragically very few organisations have a well oiled DC in place.

Organisations today, find it not just easier and economical but also reliable to outsource the running of DC for their employees to well established OD Consulting firms, which have a strong, background in organisational behaviour and psychology.

It is predicted that organisations globally in the next 7 years will witness a marked transition in their style of working – moving rapidly from ‘Full Employment Model’ to the ‘Project Life Cycle Model.’ It is in this changing world that the role of Development Centers would become even more critical than ever. New competencies, frameworks, metrics of performance and working will undergo dramatic change and it will be fascinating to observe, analyse and witness the birth of a new era in ‘talent development and management'.

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Infographics: A History of Personality Psychology

Section I: General Chronology and Driving Forces of Personality

The history of personality psychology dates as far back as Ancient Greece. Indeed, philosophers since the 4th Century BCE have been trying to define exactly what it is that makes us us. In 370 BCE, Hippocrates proposed two pillars of temperament: hot/cold and moist/dry, resulting in four humors or combinations of these qualities. The hot and dry combination was referred to as yellow bile, cold and dry as black bile, hot and wet was blood and cold and wet was phlegm. Though much of the work that arose from this theory of the Four Humors was medicinal in nature, it was also hypothesized a patient's personality could be influenced by humoral imbalances.

So, what’s the current state of this field? There has been a shift away from usingtraits to determine specific personality types. Rather, it is widely viewed by psychologists that traits should be measured a continuum. Beyond that debate, scientists are constantly trying to elucidate biological factors that influence personality, difference between and within groups and how personality psychology can be applied to various fields from business to education. Even more recently, there has been a move to re-conceptualize traits as motivations (Fleeson 2001). Fleeson is a proponent of understanding how traits vary across contexts and time. He argues that even though our personality may vary quite a bit within a given day or week -- that variability is consistent across time (e.g., if you are moody in one particular context this week, you will likely be moody in a similar context next week) and thus we can use personality traits as a predictive measure of behavior. It is easy to hear about an individual’s personality traits and think “Hm, yes, that does describe how they behave.” But the real power of personality traits lies within viewing them as factors that drive goal-directed behavior in everyday situations. This way of thinking can help explain why people do what they do and even predict behavioral outcomes, which has important implications in the world of marketing and business strategy.



Infographics: Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Monday, March 23, 2015

BLEPP 2015 Baseline Data - Part 2

This is the part 2 of the BLEPP 2015 Baseline data about the occupation or job or respondents, their purpose of taking the licensure exam and future plans (Part 1 here).

Majority of the respondents are new graduates so they are not yet employed. Like the data last year majority are employed as human resource officers or specializing in Industrial/Organizational Psychology. A number works as guidance counselor or assistant and others are already practicing psychometricians.

Below are the main reasons commonly cited for wanting to become licensed Psychometrician:

  1. For employment/Work/Job: Clinical, HR, Government, Academe/School, Guidance Counselor, Legal, Community (for job application and use in current work).
  2. To administer Psychometric Test/purchase of assessment tools.
  3. As compliance of DOH requirements on current work.
  4. For career/Advancement/Credential/Promotion/upgrade knowledge.
  5. To become a teacher/help younger generations. 
As to their future plans, majority or 91% have the intention to become future psychologists. It also reflect the other data wherein 25 respondents plan to take up graduate studies in Clinical Psychology.  

Data shows that the majority will take up Clinical Psychology followed by Industrial Psychology. Since most of the respondents are newly graduate so most have not yet thought of what to specialize for graduate school.

It is also interesting to note that there are other specialization that seems not ventured into by Psychology graduates like music therapy, child/developmental psychology, and social psychology among others.

The other table are the most cited schools/universities among survey respondents, top on the list is UST and PUP. However, some respondents did not specify the school/universities they plan to enroll for their graduate school. 

Sunday, March 22, 2015

BLEPP 2015 Baseline Data

The following data were gathered from February 27 - March 16, 2015 with a total of  75 female respondents and 16 male respondents for a total 91 respondents. 

The sign up/survey is ongoing and some of the respondents were given review gift passes from the different review centers that were featured in this blog and our FB page.  

Thanks to all respondents for us to come up with this baseline data for BLEPP 2015.

More female first time takers are taking the licensure exam at 61% compared to their male counterpart at 10%. Those yet to graduate some are graduating this year and others in 2016/2017. A total of 20% both male and female will be retaking the licensure exam. 

Those in the age bracket of 20-22 and mostly females composed 50% or half of the respondents. The rest of the respondents' ages are spread from the youngest age at 17 and the oldest at 38. 

This data also confirms the age bracket of the majority of respondents. Most of them at 63%  have graduated in 2013, 2014 and this year, 2015. The rest at 34% graduated from the year 1997 up to 2012. 

Data shows that almost half  of the respondents are doing self-review at 48%. Although the number of those availing services of review center has also increased as compared to the data last year and some continue to avail online and distance review. 

Again this data confirms the preceding or above data,  those doing self review responded NA for their review center. Meanwhile, many of the survey respondents are availing the services of SPARK Psychology Review Center.

Survey respondents came from 53 different schools or universities. Seven of the respondents came from Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP).

Baseline Data of BLEPP 2014

To sign up and answer survey follow link below

Tuesday, March 17, 2015

Review Gift Pass: Napakahusay

"Napakalaking ginhawa ang dulot ng regalo ninyo – regalong handog, mula sa inyong mga butihing puso. Tamang tama para sa nalalapit nating #InternationalDayOfHappiness 
(March 20, 2015). 

Sa mga tumulong para maging posible ang bagay na ito, Philippine Psychometrician Reviewer Team, DigiPsych Team at Kuya Tino, nag-uumapaw na pagpapasalamat ang handog ko para sa inyo. Napakalaking bagay para sa 'kin ng oportunidad na 'to para sa July 2015. Ang ideya ng 'Review Gift Pass' ay napakahusay.

Napakasarap sa pakiramdam na mayroong tunay na regalong nag-hihintay sa mumunting hakbang na binigay ko. Pinagbubutihan ko ang aking reviews, at mas lalo ko pang paghuhusayin dahil sa suportang handog ninyo! Maraming salamat.

Alam kong masaya kayong tumutulong sa mga kagaya kong nangangarap para sa mas mabuting pamumuhay. Sana'y marami pa kayong matulungan. Pagpalain po ang inyong landasin! Mapagpalaya at mabuting araw para inyo."

-  Donnies Dejucos Bendicio
   Batch 2014
  University of Makati

Thursday, March 12, 2015

Awesome RGO Review Center for Psychology's Gift Pass

An awesome, thoughtful, and generous gift you gave me is proof of success.  Thank you! I don't know how you knew  what I wanted. You blew me away with your thoughtfulness and generosity. A second to formally thank you for this blessing can’t  express my deepest gratitude. 

Answered prayers for this BLEPP 2015. Your up-to-date post in social networking sites encourage me a lot to continue what I have started. To all, who made this program possible, a pleasant surprise to see the reward you gave me that came at a much needed time. I sincerely appreciate this present and assure you I will do my best to merit the trust  you've placed in me. 

God Bless to all!  Deo Gratia!

Deo Gratias RGO Review Center!

- Joel R. Barba

Wednesday, March 11, 2015


...the psychological study of personality, the application of the methods of science to the riddles posed by man's own behavior,is a relative newcomer. The answers produced by psychology are bound to be measured against those produced by the collective experience and wisdom civilized man down through the ages.

For there seem to be almost as many definitions of personality as there have been writers about it. 


... the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought (Allport, 1961).

... a person's unique pattern of traits (Guilford, 1959).

... those habits and habit systems of social importance that are stable and resistant to change (Guthrie, 1944).

... the organization of unique behavior equipment an individual has acquired under the special conditions of his development (Lundin, 1961). 

...the most adequate conceptualization of a person's behavior in all its detail (McClelland, 1951).

Source: Conceptions of Personality:Theories and Research by Leon H.Levy, Random House, 1970

(First posted 10/23/14 - h=655)

Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Recall and Review: Abnormal Psychology

  1. Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavioremotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. Although many behaviours could be considered as abnormal, this branch of psychology generally deals with behavior in a clinical context.[1] There is a long history of attempts to understand and control behavior deemed to be aberrant or deviant (statistically, morally or in some other sense), and there is often cultural variation in the approach taken. The field of abnormal psychology identifies multiple causes for different conditions, employing diverse theories from the general field of psychology and elsewhere, and much still hinges on what exactly is meant by "abnormal". There has traditionally been a divide between psychological and biological explanations, reflecting a philosophicaldualism in regard to the mind body problem. There have also been different approaches in trying to classify mental disorders. Abnormal includes three different categories, they are subnormalsupernormal and paranormal.[2]
    The science of abnormal psychology studies two types of behaviors: adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. Behaviors that are maladaptive suggest that some problem(s) exist, and can also imply that the individual is vulnerable and cannot cope with environmental stress, which is leading them to have problems functioning in daily life.[3] Clinical psychology is the applied field of psychology that seeks to assess, understand and treat psychological conditions in clinical practice. The theoretical field known as 'abnormal psychology' may form a backdrop to such work, but clinical psychologists in the current field are unlikely to use the term 'abnormal' in reference to their practice. Psychopathology is a similar term to abnormal psychology but has more of an implication of an underlying pathology (disease process), and as such is a term more commonly used in the medical specialty known as psychiatry.  Source -

(First posted on 10/23/14, h=208)

Monday, March 9, 2015

Recall and Review: Psychological Assessment

Most licensure exam takers in the BLEPP 2014 got low score if not failed  on this subject. Special focus and attention should be given to this subject since it is 150 items and it consists of 40% or double of any of the three other subjects (20%) in weight. In some school Psychological Assessment is named as Psychological Testing or Psychological Measurement.

(Posted 10/23/14 h=280)

Sunday, March 8, 2015

Review and Recall - Industrial Psychology

An infographics based on the 2014 TOS for Industrial Psychology and chart to help you review. Identify those keywords and terms and understand them. Share with us those terms in the comment section and let's discuss. Review and Recall.