Thursday, March 5, 2015

Short Quiz and Excerpts on The Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists

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1) In the Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists, limits of confidentiality is discussed with the 
client when it is applied to which particular condition/s:

  1. regulated laws
  2. institutional rules
  3. professional or scientific relationship
  4. a minor client the  guardians/legal representative is informed

a) 1 & 2
b) 4
c) 3
d) all of the above

2) In resolving ethical issues, the Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists allows for reporting ethical violations

a) when there's a substantial harm it will be reported to authorities but it does not apply when an intervention violates confidentiality rights of another psychologist

b) when there's a substantial harm it will be reported to authorities

c) when an intervention violates confidentiality rights of another psychologist

d) when there's a potential but slight harm it should be reported to authorities even if the intervention violates confidentiality rights of another psychologist

3) The Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists stipulates that in sharing research data for verification
data should not be withold to competent professionals wanting to do verification and  reanalyze 
research results and claims of the published research, provided which of the following should not be observed:

  1. the researcher obtain prior written agreement for the use of data;
  2. the researcher intends to use the data for other purposes not declared;
  3. the researcher will be responsible for costs associated with the release of data; 
  4. confidentiality of participants can be protected.

a) 4
b) 3
c) 2
d) 1

4) The Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists provides for grounds to disclose confidential information  without consent as mandated/permitted by law:

  1. when payments for psychological services are needed to be obtained from a paying client for services as agreed (see also section VI)
  2. when the client, psychologist, or others are needed to be protected from harm
  3. appropriate professional consultations are needed to be obtained
  4. professional services are needed to be provided

1) all of the above
2) 3
3) 2
4) 1

5) Multiple Relationships are described in The Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists when

  1.  it impairs objectivity and competence
  2.  promises to enter into a future relationship with that client/patient or a person closely associated with or related to that client/patient.
  3. the psychologist is  advised to enter into such an arrangement only when it is unavoidable
  4. the psychologist is in a relationship with a person closely associated with or related to the person with whom the psychologist has the professional relationship

a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 1, 2 & 3

Email as your answers to get the correct answers. 


The Code of Ethics for Philippine Psychologists

Below are selected sections of the Code of Ethics that we made notes or excerpts and highlighted. Please read the entirety of the Code the texts below are just excerpts which we would like to give emphasis.


A. Misuse of Psychologist's Works - Ethics committee (EthicsCom) will take reasonable actions

B. Conflicts between Ethics and Law, Regulations or other Governing legal Authority - final resolution of conflict EthicsCom adhere to the law

C. Conflicts between Ethics and Organizational Demands - EthicsCom will adhere to the code in resolving conflict

D. Informal Resolution of Ethical Violations - recognition of confidentiality rights of psychologist involved, EthicsCom  will raise thru informal resolution

E. Reporting Ethical Violations – (same with US Tarasoff Case)  - if there's a substantial harm it will be reported to authorities but it does not apply when an intervention violates confidentiality rights of another psychologist

F. Cooperating with Ethics Committee -  EthicsCom will cooperate on investigation, etc.

G. Improper Complaints - discourages filing of ethical complaints without support of factual evidence

H. Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and Respondents - will not practice discrimination and will take appropriate actions on cases of discrimination.


E. Delegation of Work to Others -delegating work to employees, supervisees or research or teaching assistant  or when using services of others - such as interpreters - ensures
a) avoid multiple relationship
b) only trained/educated person perform tasks
c) competent service


A. Unfair Discrimination - not to discriminate on person - age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, religions, etc.

B. Sexual Harassment - defined by Philippine Anti-Sexual Harassment Act (RA 7877)

C. Other Harassment - not harass and demean persons

D. Avoiding Harm - take reasonable steps to avoid harming people and minimize harm when it's unavoidable

E. Multiple Relationships - refrain entering into a multiple relationship that impairs objectivity/competence
- defined as - psychologist is in a professional role with a person and at the same time:
a) another role with the same person
b) in a relationship with a person closely associated with or related to the person with whom the
    psychologist has the professional relationship or
c) promises to enter into a future relationship with that client/patient or a person closely associated
    with or related to that client/patient.
    - Ethics Code will be applied when such multiple relationship is harmful
- clarify/inform authorities on role expectations  and confidentiality 

F. Conflict of Interest -   avoid taking professional role when - a) there's impairment of objectivity, competence or effectiveness and b) exposes the person or organization with whom professional relationship exists - harm or exploitation

G. Third-Party Requests for Services - agree to provide services but relationship with those involved are clarified - expected role, who the client, uses of the services or info obtained and limits to confidentiality

H. Exploitative Relationships - avoid exploitation of person under authority and supervision

I. Cooperation with Other Professionals - maximize cooperation with other professional to server better clients

J. Informed Consent - should be obtained :
a) Conditions - conducting research, providing assessment, therapy, counseling or consulting service
b) Means - in person or electronic transmission or other forms of communication
c) Language - reasonably understandable
d) Exceptions - mandated by law or governmental regulations or as other provided in the Code of
e) For persons legally incapable - provide explanation, seek assent, consider preferences and best
     interest of the person, obtain appropriate permission from legally authorized person. When
     consent not permitted or required by law - reasonable steps to protect the individual's rights and
     welfare is considered
f) Court orders/mandated - individuals are informed about it and the limits of confidentiality
g) Appropriately document written or oral consent, permission or assent.


A. Maintaining Confidentiality - safeguard and secure information and not accessible to other persons

B. Limitations of Confidentiality
1) limits of confidentiality is discussed with client:
a) regulated laws
b) institutional rules
c) professional or scientific relationship
d) minors - guardians/legal representative is informed

2) discuss with client anticipated uses of the information they will disclose

3) information is released only to appropriate individuals or authorities - imminent danger to individual and community (US Tarasoff Case) - in court limited only to court request

4) if through electronic transmission - client is informed of the risks to privacy

C. Recording
- obtain permission when doing a voice/image recording  and explain anticipated uses of such recording

D. Minimizing Invasions of Privacy
- when consulting others only relevant information are revealed
- confidential information obtained from work discussed only with those concerned - scientific/ medical/ professional purpose
E. Disclosures
1) disclosed info are not misused, misunderstood or misinterpreted to infringe on human rights
2) confidential info are disclosed when there's consent (unless prohibited by law)
3) disclosed to source or referral - with written consent of client
4) Grounds to disclose confidential information without consent as mandated/permitted by law:
a) professional services are needed to be provided
b) appropriate professional consultations are needed to be obtained
c) when the client, psychologist, or others are needed to be protected from harm; and,
d) when payments for psychological services are needed to be obtained from a
client who does not pay for services as agreed (see also section VI).

5) confidential information is needed to be shared with schools, organizations, social agencies or industry ensuring  only qualified psychologists will supervise such releases.

6) Information gathered from school, hospital, office or organization becomes part of the institution where it was obtained. Release of such information becomes confidential and may be acquired only with prior approval from management.

F. Consultation - confidential information are not discussed with colleagues - unless client gave consent / disclosure unavoided
- seeking second opinion from colleagues - information disclosed is limited to what is only needed

G. Use of Confidential Information for Other Purposes  - never reveal identity of clients in writings, lectures, classroom discussion or other public media unless it is consented in writing reasonable steps is taken to disguise client


A. Bases for Assessment
  • substantial information and appropriate assessment techniques - (reports, recommendations, diagnostic/evaluative statements)
  • adequate assessment procedures (psychological characteristics of person)
  • instance of providing opinions on individuals without examination - limitation of such opinion is discussed

B. Informed Consent in Assessment
1) when informed consent is not observed
a) mandated by law
b) implied - routine educational/institutional/organizational activity
c) determine individual's decisional capacity
2) clients (immediate family members or legal guardians)  are educated about -  nature of services, financial
     arrangements, potential risks, and limits of confidentiality.
3. third party interpreter is needed, the confidentiality of test results and the security of the tests must be
    ensured (limitations of the obtained data are discussed in results, conclusions, and recommendations.

C. Assessment Tools
1. select and administer only those tests which are pertinent to the reasons for referral and purpose of the
2. data collection, methods and procedures that are consistent with current scientific and professional

3. tests that are standardized, valid, reliable, and has a normative data directly referable to the population of
    our clients.
4.  administer assessment tools that are appropriate to the language, competence and other relevant
     characteristics of the client.

D. Obsolete and Outdated Test Results
-  interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are not based on outdated test results and obsolete

E. Interpreting Assessment Results
1. considers  validity, reliability, and appropriateness of the test
2. considers the purpose of the assessment and other factors such as the client’s test taking abilities,
    characteristics, situational, personal, and cultural differences

F. Release of Test Data
1.  ensure that test results and interpretations are used by persons  agreed upon by the referral sources prior
     to the assessment procedure
2.  test data not released in the forms of raw and scaled scores, client’s responses to test questions or stimuli,
     and notes regarding the client’s statements and behaviors during the examination unless regulated by the

G. Explaining Assessment Results
1. test results released only to the sources of referral and with a written permission from the client if it is a self
2. test results have to be communicated through a non-technical language.
3. explain findings and test results to our clients or designated representatives except when the relationship
    precludes the provision of explanation of results and it is explained in advanced to the client.
4. supervised release when test results needs to be shared with schools, social agencies, the courts or industry

H. Test Security - administration and handling of all test materials (manuals, keys, answer sheets, reusable booklets, etc.) handled only by qualified users or personnel.

I. Assessment by Unqualified Persons
-  do not promote the use of assessment tools and methods by unqualified persons except for training
   purposes with adequate supervision.
-  ensure that test protocols, their interpretations and all other records are kept secured from unqualified

J. Test Construction
- use of current scientific findings and knowledge, appropriate psychometric properties, validation, and
   standardization procedures.


A. Rights and Dignity of Participants
1. respect the rights, safeguard the dignity, and protect and promote the welfare of research participants.
2.  obtain essential information about their mores, culture, social structure, customs, and traditions of the
3. respect and abide by their cultural expectations, provided that this does not contravene any of the ethical
    principles of this Code of Ethics.
4. respect the rights of research participants should they wish to discontinue their participation at any time
5. do not contribute nor engage in research which contravenes international humanitarian law, such as
development of methods intended to torture persons, development of prohibited weapons, or destruction
of the environment.
6. ask participants about any factors that could bring forth potential harm, such as pre-existing medical
   conditions, and to detect, remove, or correct any foreseeable undesirable consequences prior to research
7. ensure that participants’ rights are protected, we seek independent and sufficient ethical review of the  
    possible risks our research may pose to them.

B. Informed Consent to Research
1. recognize that informed consent happens due to the willingness of the participants to work collaboratively with us (ask participants to sign in the consent form)
2. consent form is translated in language or dialect that the participants understand and guarantee that the information was understood.
3. research with persons below 18 years of age, informed assent is obtained from them and informed consent from their parents or legal guardian.
4.  research with adult participants who have difficulties in comprehension or communication, informed consent from adult family members of the participants and approval from independent advisors are obtained.
5. conduct research with detained persons, we pay attention to special circumstances which could affect the latter’s ability to give informed consent.
6. obtaining informed consent as required in section III.J. of the Code of Ethics, research participants are informed about:
a. the purpose of research, expected duration, and procedures;
b. mutual responsibilities;
c. their right to decline to participate and to withdraw from the research once participation has begun;
d. the foreseeable consequences of declining or withdrawing;
e. reasonably foreseeable factors that may be expected to influence their willingness
to participate such as potential risks, discomfort, or adverse effects;
f. how to rescind consent if desired;
g. any prospective research benefits;
h. protections and limits of confidentiality and/or anonymity;
i. incentives for participation; and,
j. whom to contact for questions about the research and research participants’ rights.

7. conducting intervention research using experimental treatments, clarify to participants at the beginning of research the following:
a. experimental nature of the treatment
b. services that will or will not be available to the control group(s) if appropriate;
c. means by which assignment to treatment and control groups will be made;
d. available treatment alternatives if an individual does not wish to participate in the
    research or wishes to withdraw once a study has begun; and,
e. compensation for or monetary costs of participating, and if appropriate, including
    whether reimbursement from the participant or a third-party payor will be sought.

8. longitudinal research - obtain informed consent on more than one occasion.

C. Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research
1.  obtain informed consent from research participants before recording their
voices or images for data collection, except when:
a. the research consists only of naturalistic observations in public places, and it is
not anticipated that the recording will be used in a manner that could cause
personal identification or harm; and,
b. the research design includes deception, and consent for the use of the recording is
obtained during debriefing.

D. Research Participation of Client, Students and Subordinates
1. conduct of research with clients, students or subordinates - not coerce them to participate
- inform them about their right not to participate/ not reprimand or penalize them 
2.  research participation is a course requirement or an opportunity for extra credit - inform clients, students or subordinates about equitable alternative activities that could fulfill their educational or employment goals.

E. Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research
1. dispense informed consent only on the following conditions:
a. when we believe that the research would not distress or create harm to participants or general welfare or when our study involves:
i.  the study or normal educational practices, curricula, or classroom management methods conducted in educational settings;
ii. only anonymous questionnaires, naturalistic observations, or archival research for which disclosure of responses would not place participants at risk of criminal or civil liability or damage their financial standing, employability, or reputation, and confidentiality is protected;
iii. the study of factors related to job or organization effectiveness conducted in organizational settings which would not affect the participants’  employability, and confidentiality is protected; or,
b. when it is mandated by law or is an institutional regulation.

F. Offering Inducements for Research Participation
1. fairly compensate participants for the use of their time, energy, and knowledge, unless such compensation is refused in advance.
2. make reasonable efforts not to offer undue, excessive or, inappropriate reward, financial or other inducements for research participation, which could likely pressure or coerce participation.
3. offered psychological and professional services as an incentive for research participation - duty to clarify the nature of the services, including the risks, obligations and limitations.

G. Deception in Research
1. refrain from conducting research involving deception, except:
a. when we have determined that the use of deceptive techniques is justified by the
study’s significant prospective scientific, educational, medical, or applied value;  and,
b. when effective non-deceptive alternative procedures are not possible.
2. not to deceive prospective research participants about our study that is reasonably expected to interfere their decision to give informed consent. 
- not withheld from the participants - level of risk, discomfort, or inconvenience that could cause physical pain or severe emotional distress
3.  duty to explain any deception as an integral feature of design and conduct of an experiment to those who participated in research as soon as possible, preferably at the end of their participation but not later than the end of data gathering.

H. Debriefing

1. debrief by informing the participants that they have contributed to the body of knowledge and we make sure that they have also learned from their participation.
2. give participants an opportunity to obtain the nature, results, and conclusions of the research. We also take reasonable steps to correct any misconceptions participants have about our research, especially when the participants were led to believe that the research has a different purpose.
3. When participants’ trust may have been lost due to incomplete disclosure or temporarily leading participants to believe that the research had a different purpose, we seek to reestablish trust and assure them that the research procedures were carefully structured and necessary for scientifically valid findings.
4. If scientific or humane values justify delaying or withholding this information, we take reasonable measures to reduce the risk of harm.
5. When we become aware that our research procedures have harmed a participant, we act to correct and minimize the harm.
6. If after debriefing, the participants decided to withdraw their data, we shall respect and grant their request. The participants have the right to appeal that their own data, including recordings, be destroyed.

I. Observational Research
We respect the privacy and psychological well-being of persons studied based on observational
research. This method is acceptable only when those being observed would expect to be observed
by strangers.

K. Reporting Research Results
1. consult with groups, organizations, or communities being studied the findings of our research so as to increase the accuracy of interpretation and to minimize the risk of misunderstanding, misinterpretation or misuse.
2.  when reporting results of our research regarding vulnerable groups or communities and we ensure that the results will not be misinterpreted or misused in the development of social policy, attitude, and practices.
3. research involving children, we are cautious when discussing the results with parents, legal guardians, or teachers and we make sure that there is no misinterpretation or misunderstanding.
4. We do not fabricate data.
5. If we discover significant errors in our published data, we act quickly to correct such errors in a correction, retraction, erratum, or other appropriate publication means.

L. Plagiarism
- not present any portions of other’s work or data as our own, even if the source is cited occasionally.

M. Publication Credit
1.  credit only for work we have actually done and credit others (including students and research assistants) for work they have actually performed or to which they have substantially contributed.

2.  principal authorship and co-authorship accurately reflect the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their relative status.
- Mere possession of an institutional position, such as department chair or head of the research unit, does not justify authorship credit.
- Minor contributions to the research or to the writing for publications must be acknowledged appropriately, such as in footnotes or an introductory statement.

3. do not claim credit or authorship in a publication that is substantially based on our student’s thesis or dissertation if we do not have substantial contributions to the research beyond our regular duties as thesis/dissertation mentor or advisor. As faculty advisors, we should discuss with students, publication credit at the outset and throughout the research and publication process based on our relative contributions to the research work.

4. In a multiple-authored article that is partly and/or substantially based on the student’s thesis or dissertation, we shall give appropriate publication credit to the student based on the student’s contribution relative to the other authors. When the article is mainly based on the student’s thesis or dissertation, we credit the student with primary authorship.

N. Duplicate Publication of Data
- not publish data that have been previously published and claim them as original data.
- in  republishing of data  proper acknowledgement is clearly stated.

O. Sharing Research Data for Verification
- duty to share and not to withhold data to other competent professionals, who seek to verify and reanalyze the research results and substantive claims of our publication, provided that:
1. the latter obtain prior written agreement for the use of data;
2. the latter intend to use the data solely for the purpose declared;
3. the latter will hold responsibility for costs associated with the release of data; and,
4. confidentiality of participants can be protected.
- Unless legal rights concerning proprietary data preclude such release, then the latter should seek
permission from the concerned institution, organization or agency.

P. Reviewers
review material submitted for presentation, publication, grant, or research proposal review -  respect the confidentiality and the proprietary rights of those who submitted it.

Q. Limitations of the Study
1. acknowledge the limitations of our knowledge, methods, findings, interventions, interpretations, and conclusions.
2. research touches on social policies and structures of communities which we do not belong, we thoroughly discuss the limits of our data with respect to their social policy.

3. not to conceal disconfirming evidence about findings and views and acknowledge alternative hypotheses and explanations.

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(First posted on 8-25-2014 {h=656} )

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