Friday, June 27, 2014

Notice of Admission for Psychometrician Licensure Exam released in Iloilo

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DIY (do-it-yourself) talaga yung pagprocess ko as first timer, so trial and error talaga. 

Mababait naman mga taga-PRC Iloilo they guided me naman throughout sa basic requirements na kaloka. Siguro try nyo na lng muna na walang notary, original copy naman yung kukunin nila. I was told naman na same requirement lng sa ibang PRC. I really do hope so!

First po na ginawa ko is gumawa ng account sa PRC online and printed it, after ko na collect na yung mga said requirements eh pina-photocopy ko lahat except po sa mga good moral.

Sa labas ng PRC-Iloilo may mga net cafe na pwede dun mag print sa initial registration, about Php 25. Sa entrance plng po tinitingnan na ng guard if complete na yung basic requirements before ka bigyan ng number for pre-assessment.

Yung NBI clearance na original yung kukunin nila and all certificates of good moral character. Make sure lng po na dala nyo din mga original documents kasi they check it out thoroughly talaga.

May mga form sila na bibigay to fill up and may pre-assessment pa ng documents before paying (so, they tell you if may kulang pa, etc.) After paying po, yung officer naman yung mag re-recheck ng lahat ng documents if tama and if may naka-lusot may mga wrong data (like sa akin, pinaulit pa good moral ko again for the nth time). Pag pasok nyo po sa PRC may mga guard din cguro na tutulong mag assist sa process.

Php 900.00 po ang bayad ng filing of application.

Yung passport ID picture dapat not edited talaga with your name and logo.

Nahirapan ako sa good moral as in. Dapat most recent na good moral like sa grad school, employer, church or bgry captain. Not valid na po yung mga college and HS goodmoral unless fresh graduate. Hinde naman notarized yung Certificates of Good Moral Character ko pero may mga dry seal naman ng church and school so okay naman daw. And paki take note nalang na dapat may keyword talaga na "she/he is with good moral character etc" sa mga certificates nyo. Very strict kasi talaga sila.

Madaming rumors kasi na dapat 5 units talaga yung Psychological Assessment na course. Mahirap pa naman kumuha sa CHED ng certification sa equivalency. Pina-certified true copy ko nalang yung letter from our school then isinama ko nalang sa TOR ko. Letter of equivalency nga lang yung alam ko tawag dun.

Notice of Admission and General Guidelines to Examinees
we intentionally covered the foto and personal details of Ming  for her privacy.

After, you will get Notice of Admission and a copy of guidelines for board exam. Manila pa yung location ng exam sa NOA.  After na okay na yung documents they will print your NOA w/picture.
Around 30 din siguro kami na nag-apply and  I am the first one palang to get NOA here. Sana there will still be changes and we can have our exam here in Iloilo kapag malapit na ang schedule ng exam.

Maraming salamat kay  "Ming" for sharing to us ang kaniyang experience sa pag-file ng kaniyang application sa PRC-Iloilo and foto ng kaniyang NOA 

This is the first time we have learned about this experience from an applicant from the region, we haven't learned from anyone from Manila (no one has shared so far) about their experience filing their application for the Psychometrician Licensure Exam. We are very much interested to know, soon we will also be filing our application and submitting those requirements to PRC-Manila.

Wednesday, June 25, 2014

Infographics - Personality Tests

Personality Tests

Thanks LelyaS for this.

Behind Personality Tests

A major component to modern psychology is personality testing and typing. With applications across a huge number of industries (education, counseling, business, sports and more), understanding the major schools of thought when it comes to personality types is important for psychology students (and amateur therapists).

The History of Personality Testing

Ancient times (1)
Hippocrates suggests that our personas are based on four distinct temperaments. Galen takes that a step further by pairing a body fluid to each temperament (blood, mucus, black bile and yellow bile). He suggests that whatever fluid was dominant in the person determined their “humor.” This theory persists for about a thousand years after Galen’s death.
18th century (1)
Medical science supplants the humors theory in treating the body, but the theory remains integral to determining personalities.
19th century (1)
Physiologist Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 becomes the first person to draw a clear distinction between the human body and one’s personality. His research leads him to believe that not only are the four temperaments aspects of the human personality (and not the body), people display a combination of two or more temperaments.
20th century (1)
The psychological boom in the early 1900s leads to a jump in interest regarding personality testing and typing. Several prominent theorists emerge, including Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud and Eduard Spranger.
1919 (2)
The first modern personality test, the Woodworth Personal data sheet, is first used to help the United States Army distinguish which recruits might be susceptible to “shellshock.”
1921 (2)
The famous Rorschach inkblot test is introduced.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is introduced, based on Carl Jung’s personality theories. The test remains the most widely taken today, with an estimated 4 million people taking it every year. (2, 3)
$4 billion
Estimated size of personality testing industry (4)

The Personality of Your Personality Test

There are probably as many common personality tests as there are people in the world. Well, maybe not, but there are a whole lot of personality tests, and they all measure different things. Let’s take a closer look at the three most prominent tests in use today.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (3)
What: Based on the psychological types identified by Carl Jung in his theories that what appears to be random variation in behavior is actually orderly and consistent and can be traced to basic differences in people’s perception and judgment.
Developed: Based on decades of research that started in the 1940s; test first introduced in 1962.
Types: 16 distinct personality types
Length of test: 93 yes-or-no questions
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (5)
What: Used in clinical settings to evaluate a patient’s psychological problems.
Developed: In the late 1930s to help diagnose mental illness. Often applied in legal cases, and only administered in clinical settings.
Types: 10 clinical subscales; 4 validity scales
Clinical subscales
  • Hypochondriasis (Hs)
  • Depression (D)
  • Hysteria (Hy)
  • Psychopathic Deviate (Pd)
  • Masculinity/Femininity (Mf)
  • Paranoia (Pa)
  • Psychasthenia (Pt)
  • Schizophrenia (Sc)
  • Hypomania (Ma)
  • Social Introversion (Si)
Length of test: 567 true-or-false questions
Five Factor Model (Big Five) (6)
What: Attempts to identify the five basic aspects that make up human personality: openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism.
Developed: Initially developed in the 1970s, it’s been reaffirmed several times via independent research over the years.
Types: 5 fundamental factors on which an individual is rated so that their personality is made up of a mix of each trait. Could look something like this:
  • Openness: High, indicating impatience with the way things are.
  • Conscientiousness: Above average, indicating a balanced approach between sticking to plans and deadlines and being flexible.
  • Extroversion: Low, indicating someone who prefers calm environments to large social gatherings.
  • Agreeableness: Above average, indicating switching between being tenderhearted and tough-minded.
  • Neuroticism: Above average, indicating being quick to respond to changes in your environment.
Length of test: Variable, but some versions are as short as 45 questions on a 1-5 scale

What Do the Tests Reveal?

As we’ve seen, there are lots of different ways to describe someone’s personality. How do you compare with notable people (and a few fictional characters)? Using the most common personality test in the world, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which of these traits are most familiar? (7)
Protectors (ESTJ, ESFJ, ISTJ, ISFJ)
Lucy Van Pelt
Tony Soprano
David Copperfield
George Washington
Evander Holyfield
Queen Elizabeth II
James Bond
Bart Simpson
Boba Fett
Ronald Reagan
Magic Johnson
Ernest Hemingway
Intellectuals (ENTJ, ENTP, INTJ, INTP)
Jordi LaForge
Cosmo Kramer
Hannibal Lecter
Abraham Lincoln
Charles Darwin
Carl Jung
Visionaries (ENFJ, ENFP, INFJ, INFP)
Tin Man
Steve Urkel
King David
William Shakespeare
Peter Jackson

Monday, June 23, 2014

Petition-Survey for a Regional Psychometrician Licensure Exam

Some of our readers have read in our blog post that group of schools could write to their Professional Regulation Commission - PRC Regional Director to request for a regional licensure exam in their locality addressed to the Board of Psychology and the PRC in Manila. So we are doing this survey to get a sense of how many examinees would be interested to take licensure exam in their region. We encourage in particular those who are based in the Visayas and Mindanao to answer this survey if interested to join this petition/survey. Depending on the number of examinees, the capacity of regional offices to conduct the licensure exam, etc. would be considerations will be taken into account by the Board of Psychology and PRC to decide whether to  approve the conduct of a regional licensure exam. So this petition/survey serves as a possible gauge to endorse to PRC such request. Please note that this is an initiative of TR Reviewer based on the initial feedback we are receiving from our previous blog post on the PAP organized Orientation on the Psychology Licensure Exam held at PSSC last 18 June 2014.

Please share and inform your school school dean and faculty head about this petition for the possibility of a Regional Psychometricians Licensure Exam.

Try to scroll down to the last question and click the submit button.

Form is also available from this link  -

Sunday, June 22, 2014

Comparison Bloom and TOS Required Competence

(Updated June 24, 2014Note - Bloom's Taxonomy is not part of the exam - but it will make use of Bloom's taxonomy in framing questions for the exam. Always refer to the TOS for the exam's coverage. Please refer to the links below to know more about the context of this blog post.) 

Based on the above table, Comparing Bloom and the TOS Required Competence, we can categorized the skills demonstrated or questions cues according to: more frequent occurring, less and least. 

The following Frequent Occurring in the 3 subjects:
Apply/use  -Application
Identify      -Knowledge
Recognize  -Knowledge

The following Less Occurring in 2 subjects:
Differentiate  -Analysis
Describe        -Comprehension

The following Least Occurring in 1 subject:
Assess          -Evaluation
Evaluate      -Evaluation
Distinguish  -Comprehension
Discuss        -Comprehension
Explain        -Comprehension
Use             - Application

As to subjects Abnormal Psychology uses 6 various skills or questions cues, while Industrial Psychology uses 5, Psychological Assessment uses 5, and Theories of Personality uses 3. 

It can be observed that question cues like identify and recognize considered belonging to the basic and least complex of the cognitive system categories are still the more dominant in at least 3 subjects. Although question cue on application or knowledge utilization is appearing in the 3 subjects as well.

Examinees should therefore pay attention on these skills demonstrated or questions cues. The TOS should be referred back in order to familiarize with the possible framing of board exam questions and make use of the TOS as review guide.

To be updated of our blog posts and other review information consider signing-up here -

Longer version of the matrix - Table of Comparison

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies.


Skills Demonstrated

  • observation and recall of information
  • knowledge of dates, events, places
  • knowledge of major ideas
  • mastery of subject matter
  • Question Cues:
    list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
  • understanding information
  • grasp meaning
  • translate knowledge into new context
  • interpret facts, compare, contrast
  • order, group, infer causes
  • predict consequences
  • Question Cues:
    summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
  • use information
  • use methods, concepts, theories in new situations
  • solve problems using required skills or knowledge
  • Questions Cues:
    apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover
  • seeing patterns
  • organization of parts
  • recognition of hidden meanings
  • identification of components
  • Question Cues:
    analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer
  • use old ideas to create new ones
  • generalize from given facts
  • relate knowledge from several areas
  • predict, draw conclusions
  • Question Cues:
    combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite
  • compare and discriminate between ideas
  • assess value of theories, presentations
  • make choices based on reasoned argument
  • verify value of evidence
  • recognize subjectivity
  • Question Cues
    assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize
* From Benjamin S. Bloom Taxonomy of educational objectives.
Published by Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Copyright (c) 1984 by Pearson Education.
Adapted by permission of the publisher.

Bloom’s Taxonomy is a hierarchy of six cognitive skills arranged from less to more complex.


Recognizes students’ ability to use rote memorization and recall certain facts.
Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain:
cite, define, identify, label, list, match, name, recognize, reproduce, select, state.
Learning objectivesExam questions
The students will recall the four major food groups without error.
Name the four major food groups.
The students will list at least three characteristics peculiar to the Cubist movement.
List  three characteristics that are unique to the Cubist movement.
The students will be able to definegram-positive bacteria.
Define gram-positive bacteria.


Involves students’ ability to read course content, understand and interpret important information and put other’s ideas into their own words.
Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: 
classify, convert, describe, distinguish between, explain, extend, give examples, illustrate, interpret, paraphrase, summarize, translate.
Learning objectivesExam questions
The students will summarize the main events of a story in grammatically correct English.
Using grammatically correct English, please summarize the main events – in three or four sentences - from the news story given below.
The students will describe in prose what is shown in graph form.
Given a graph of production trends in automobiles, describewhat the graph represents in a memo to your boss.
From a “story-problem” description, students will convert the story to a mathematical manipulation needed to solve the problem.
A researcher wonders whether attending a private high school leads to higher or lower performance on an exam of social skills.  A random sample of 100 students from a private school produces a mean score of 71.30 on the exam, and the national mean score for students from public schools is 75.62 (s x = 29.0). Convert the information in this word problem into a mathematical representation that will enable you to solve the problem.


Students take new concepts and apply them to another situation.
Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain:
apply, arrange, compute, construct, demonstrate, discover, modify, operate,predict, prepare, produce, relate, show, solve, use.
Learning objectivesExam questions
The students will multiply ractions in class with 90 percent accuracy.
Solve for the ten following fraction multiplication problems.  Please make sure to show all your work.
The students will apply previously learned information about socialism to reach an answer.
According to our definition of socialism, which of the following nations would be considered to be socialist?
The students will demonstrate the principle of reinforcement to classroom interactions.
In a teaching simulation with your peers role-playing 6th grade students, demonstrate the principle of reinforcement in classroom interactions andprepare a ½ page description of what happened during the simulation that validated the principle.


Students have the ability to take new information and break it down into parts to differentiate between them.
Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: analyze, associate, determine, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, estimate, infer, order, outline, point out, separate, subdivide.
Learning objectivesExam questions
The students will read a presidential debate and point outthe passages that attack a political opponent personally rather than the opponent’s political programs.
From the short presidential debate transcribed below:  Differentiatethe passages that attacked a political opponent personally, and those that attacked an opponent’s political programs.
The students will point out the positive and negative points presented in an argument for the abolition of guns.
From the argument given below,analyze the positive and negative points presented concerning the abolition of guns and write a brief (2-3 page) narrative of your analysis.
Students will discriminate among a list of possible steps to determine which one(s) would lead to increased reliability for a test.
Determine which of the following steps would most likely lead to an increase in the reliability estimate for a test:
  • Increasing the number of persons tested from 500 to 1,000.
  • Selecting items so that half were very difficult and half very easy
  • Increasing the length of the test with more of the same kinds of items
  • Increasing the homogeneity of the group of subjects tested.


Students are able to take various pieces of information and form a wholecreating a pattern where one did not previously exist.
Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain:combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, devise, formulate, integrate, modify, organize, plan, propose, rearrange, reorganize, revise, rewrite, tell, write.
Learning objectivesExam questions
The students will write a different but plausible ending to a short story.
Develop one plausible ending for all three short stories below.
After studying the current economic policies of the United States, student groups will designtheir own goals for fiscal and monetary policies.
Working in your groups and considering the current economic policies of the US that we have been studying, develop your goals for employment, price levels, and rate of real economic growth for the next three years.  Write these goals on the newsprint and be ready to discuss why your goals are feasible.
The students will design a series of chemical operations to separate quantitatively the elements in a solution.
In the lab, you will be given a solution to analyze to see what elements make up the solution.  Then design a series of chemical operations to separate quantitatively the elements in the solution.


Involves students’ ability to look at someone else’s ideas or principles and see the worth of the work and the value of the conclusions.
Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain:
appraise, assess, compare, conclude, contrast, criticize, discriminate, evaluate, judge, justify, support, weigh.
Learning objectivesExam questions
The students will use the principles of socialism to evaluate the US economic system.
Using the basic principles of socialism discussed in this course,evaluate the US economic system by providing key arguments to support your judgment.
Given any research study,evaluate the appropriateness of the conclusions reached based on the data presented.
For years, misinformation about negative effects of aspartame has proliferated on the internet. The committee evaluated peer-reviewed research from the scientific literature on this topic and concluded: “Aspartame consumption is not associated with adverse effects in the general population”.  -- Given the data we’ve looked at on this topic,evaluate how appropriate this conclusion is and defend your answer.
The students will compare two pieces of sculpture, giving reasons for their positive evaluation of one over the other.
Two pieces of sculpture from different eras and artists are displayed.  Study these two pieces, use the compare-contrast method to determine which piece you prefer and write a 2-3 page report that describes your thinking process as you studied these pieces.  Utilize the skills you have learned as we have studied various pieces of sculpture over the past two weeks.

Additional information

Anderson, L. W. (Ed.), Krathwohl, D. R. (Ed.), Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. R., Pintrich, P. R., Raths, J., & Wittrock, M. C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Complete edition)New York: Longman.
Bloom, Benjamin S., et. al. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, New York: David McKay Company, Inc.
Gronlund, N. E. (1998). Assessment of student achievement. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Hellyer, S. (n.d.). A teaching handbook for university faculty. Chapter 1: Course objectives. Retrieved October 1, 1998 from Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Web site:
Krathwohl, D.R. (2002). A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(4), 212-218.
Kubiszyn, K., & Borich, G. (1984). Educational testing and measurement:
Classroom application and practice. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, pp. 53-55.

Friday, June 20, 2014

Outcomes Assessment FAQ & Examples and Bloom's Taxonomy

DAMMCQs: Appendix. C: MCQs and Bloom's Taxonomy

Image source -

Designing and Managing MCQs:

Appendix C: MCQs and Bloom's Taxonomy

Contents of This Chapter
  • C1 Bloom's Taxonomy
  • C2 Application of Bloom's Taxonomy to the design of MCQs

C1 Bloom's Taxonomy

Following the 1948 Convention of the American Psychological Association, B S Bloom took a lead in formulating a classification of "the goals of the educational process". Three "domains" of educational activities were identified. The first of these, named the Cognitive Domain, involves knowledge and the development of intellectual attitudes and skills. (The other domains are the Affective Domain and the Psychomotor Domain, and need not concern us here). Eventually, Bloom and his co-workers established a hierarchy of educational objectives, which is generally referred to as Bloom's Taxonomy, and which attempts to divide cognitive objectives into subdivisions ranging from the simplest behaviour to the most complex. It is important to realise that the divisions outlined above are not absolutes and that other systems or hierarchies have been devised. However, Bloom's taxonomy is easily understood and widely applied.

C1.1. Knowledge.

Knowledge is defined as the remembering of previously learned material. This may involve the recall of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: know common terms, know specific facts, know methods and procedures, know basic concepts, know principles.

C.1.2. Comprehension.

Comprehension is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another (words to numbers), by interpreting material (explaining or summarizing), and by estimating future trends (predicting consequences or effects). These learning outcomes go one step beyond the simple remembering of material, and represent the lowest level of understanding. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: understand facts and principles, interpret verbal material, interpret charts and graphs, translate verbal material to mathematical formulae, estimate the future consequences implied in data, justify methods and procedures.

C.1.3. Application.

Application refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those under comprehension. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: apply concepts and principles to new situations, apply laws and theories to practical situations, solve mathematical problems, construct graphs and charts, demonstrate the correct usage of a method or procedure.

C.1.4. Analysis.

Analysis refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. This may include the identification of parts, analysis of the relationship between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: recognize unstated assumptions, recognises logical fallacies in reasoning, distinguish between facts and inferences, evaluate the relevancy of data, analyse the organizational structure of a work (art, music, writing).

C.1.5. Synthesis.

Synthesis refers to the ability to put parts together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying information). Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviours, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structure. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: write a well organized theme, gives a well organized speech writes a creative short story (or poem or music), propose a plan for an experiment, integrate learning from different areas into a plan for solving a problem, formulates a new scheme for classifying objects (or events, or ideas).

C.1.6. Evaluation.

Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given purpose. The judgments are to be based on definite criteria. These may be internal criteria (organization) or external criteria (relevance to the purpose) and the student may determine the criteria or be given them. Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they contain elements of all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: judge the logical consistency of written material, judge the adequacy with which conclusions are supported by data, judge the value of a work (art, music, writing) by the use of internal criteria, judge the value of a work (art, music, writing) by use of external standards of excellence. There is a great deal of information on Bloom's taxonomy on the Web.  Some starting points are:
Return to Contents of this Chapter

C2 Application of Bloom's Taxonomy to the design of MCQs

C2.1 Level 1: Knowledge

At this level, one simply requires the recall of acquired knowledge. WARNING! A test at this level can easily become a "Trivial Pursuit" exercise! Example C2.1.1
Which one of the following persons is the author of "Das Kapital"?

 1. Mannheim
 2. Marx
 3. Weber
 4. Engels
 5. Michels
Note that the responses are internally consistent - they are all the names of Germans whose written work have been major contributions on social issues. Example C2.1.2
In the area of physical science, which one of the following definitions 
describes the term "polarization"?

 1. The separation of electric charges by friction.
 2. The ionization of atoms by high temperatures.
 3. The interference of sound waves in a closed chamber.
 4. The excitation of electrons by high frequency light.
 5. The vibration of transverse waves in a single plane.
Simple recall of the correct definition of polarization (#5) is required. Internal consistency and plausibility are maintained in that all responses are actual physical phenomena. Example C2.1.3
According to the microgenesis of perception concept, the threshold
 of awareness consists of a hierarchy of thresholds. Which one of the 
 sequences shown below is correct?

1.   Recognition thresholds > physiological thresholds > detection
2.   Physiological thresholds > detection thresholds > recognition 
3.   Physiological thresholds > recognition thresholds > detection 
4.   Recognition thresholds > detection thresholds > physiological 

In this example, nothing more is required than the recall of the order of certain pieces of related information. The correct answer is #2.

C2.2 Level 2. Comprehension

At this level, knowledge of facts, theories, procedures etc. is assumed, and one tests for understanding of this knowledge. Example C2.2.1
Which one of the following describes what takes place in the so-called 
  PREPARATION stage of the creative process, as applied to the solution
  of a particular problem?

 1. The problem is identified and defined.
 2. All available information about the 
     problem is collected.
 3. An attempt is made to see if the proposed
     solution to the problem is acceptable.
 4. The person goes through some experience
      leading to a general idea of how the problem 
      can be solved.
 5. The person sets the problem aside, and gets
      involved with some other unrelated activity.

In this question, the knowledge of the five stages of the creative process must be recalled (KNOWLEDGE), and one is tested for an understanding (COMPREHENSION) of the meaning of each term, in this case, "preparation". Note that this question violates the rule that the answer and distractors should all be of about the same length. It is difficult to get around this one here, so the text is edited so that each line is about the same length.

C2.3 Level 3: Application

In order to classify a question into this group, ask yourself if prior knowledge of the background to the question is assumed to be both known and understood, and whether one is merely expected to apply this knowledge and understanding. Calculations based on known formulae are good examples of this, as shown in the example below: Example C2.3.1
Which one of the following values approximates best to the
volume of a sphere with radius 5m?

 a. 2000m³
 b  1000m³
 c.  500m³
 d   250m³
 e.  125m³

In order to answer this question, the formula 4[pi]r³> /3 must be known (recall of knowledge) and the meaning of the various symbols in the formula understood (comprehension) in order to answer this question. The correct answer is #3. Example C2.3.2
Which one of the following memory systems does a piano-tuner
mainly use in his occupation?

 1. Echoic memory.
 2. Short-term memory.
 3. Long-term memory.
 4. Mono-auditory memory.
 5. None of the above.

This is clearly a case of testing for the application of previously acquired knowledge (the various memory systems), which is also understood, as the meaning of each term must be clear before the student can decide whether it is applicable to the given situation. The correct answer is #1. Note that students may not necessarily know what a piano- tuner is or does. Watch out for cultural bias! The next example is more difficult to classify: Example C2.3.3

You are the sole owner and manager of a small enterprise
employing 15 workers. One of these, Alfred, (who has been
working for you for the past year and has somewhat of a
history of absenteeism), arrives late for work one Wednesday
morning, noticeably intoxicated. Which one of the following
actions is the most appropriate in the circumstances?

     1. You terminate Alfred's employment on the spot, paying him
         the wages still due to him.
     2. You parade Alfred in front of the other workers, to teach them
         all a lesson.
     3. You give Alfred three weeks' wages in lieu of notice, and
         sack him.
     4. You wait until Alfred is sober, discuss his problem, and give
         him a final written warning, should it be required.
     5. You call Alfred's wife to take him home and warn her that this
         must not happen again.

Note that this this question is classified as APPLICATION as in order to answer it, the relevant labour legislation should be known and understood. One could made a case for it to have a higher classification such as EVALUATION, on the grounds that one is asked to evaluate which one of the proposed actions is the best in the circumstances, or ANALYSIS, on the grounds that in order to select the most appropriate answer, one should analyse the possible outcomesof each decision. For both these levels, one would expect a greater amount of information as to Alfred's situation, the relationship between Alfred and his co-workers, union involvement in the enterprise etc., and have a more sophisticated set of distractors. Here, option #4 is clearly the best both on legal and human terms. Note that the figure of speech "on the spot" may not be understood by second- language students. Use suitable language!

C2.4 Level 4: Analysis

Example C2.4.1
"The story is told of the famous German Organic Chemist
Auguste Kékulé who was struggling with the problem of how
the six carbon atoms of benzene were linked together. He was
getting nowhere with the problem, and one day fell asleep in
front of the fireplace while he was pondering on it. He
dreamt of molecules twisting and turning around like snakes.
Suddenly, one of the snakes swallowed its own tail and
rolled around like a hoop. Kékulé  woke up with a start, and
realized that his problem could be solved if the six carbon
atoms of benzene were attached to each other to form a ring.
Further work showed that this was entirely correct."

The above passage illustrates a particular phase of the
creative process. Which one is it?

     1. preparation
     2. incubation
     3. orientation
     4. illumination
     5. verification

In the above example, the student is expected to know and understand the five stages of the creative process, and to apply this knowledge to an important factual example of creative thinking (the elucidation of the chemical structure of the benzene molecule). The ability to analyse the data (i.e. the given text) in terms of each of the five stages is what is being tested. The correct answer, by the way, is #4. Example C2.4.2 (Assume the question below is asked in a philosophy test.)
Read carefully through the paragraph below, and decide which
of the options 1-5 is correct.

"The basic premise of pragmatism is that questions posed by
speculative metaphysical propositions can often be answered
by determining what the practical consequences of the
acceptance of a particular metaphysical proposition are in
this life. Practical consequences are taken as the criterion
for assessing the relevance of all statements or ideas about
truth, norm and hope."

     1.   The word "acceptance" should be replaced by "rejection".
     2.   The word "often" should be replaced by "only".
     3.   The word "speculative" should be replaced by "hypothetical".
     4.   The word "criterion" should be replaced by "measure".

This question requires prior knowledge of and understanding about the concept of pragmatism. The paragraph, seen in this light, contains one word which vitiates its validity, and the student is tested on his/her ability to analyze it to see whether it fits with the accepted definition of pragmatism. With this in mind, #2 is correct. Option #1 would degrade the paragraph further, while #3 and #4 would simply result in changing to acceptable synonyms. Note that this question does not address Level 6 (Evaluation), as one is not asked to pass a value judgement on the text. This must be considered as a very difficult question, and will obviously require a high level of reading skills. Bear in mind that there will be a significant time factor involved.

  Example C2.4.3
Look at the following table and indicate which countries'
statistics are being reported in rows A, B and C. 
GNP per capita 1991 ($ USA) Growth rate of GNP per capita p.a. 1980-91 Population growth rate 1980-91 Structures of total employment 1980-85 (percentages)
Agriculture Industry Services
A 500 2,5% 1,5% 51 20 29
B 1570 5,8% 1,6% 74 8 8
S.A. 2560 0,7% 2,5% 17 36 36
C 25110 1,7% 0,3% 6 32 32
Choose your answer from the following list of possible

     1.   A is South Korea; B is Kenya; C is Canada.
     2.   A is Sri Lanka; B is Germany; C is Thailand.
     3.   A is Sri Lanka; B is Thailand; C is Sweden.
     4.   A is Namibia; B is Portugal; C is Botswana.

In order to answer this question, students must be able to recall the relative economic rankings of various countries (KNOWLEDGE) and understand the basis for such a ranking (COMPREHENSION). They must be able to apply these concepts when information is supplied to them (APPLICATION), and they must be able to ANALYZE the given information in order to answer the question. Students did not like this question when they were faced with it in a class test, as their immediate reaction was that "it was impossible to remember the statistics for all the countries that were discussed in class and given to them in handouts". They were surprised when told that such detailed knowledge was in fact not expected of them, but that they were to examine the table and perform a ranking on the basis of concepts that they should have mastered. The correct answer is 3.

C2.5 Level 6: Evaluation

At this level, one is asked to pass judgement on, for example, the logical consistency of written material, the validity of experimental procedures or interpretation of data. Example C2.5.1
A student was asked the following question: "Briefly list
and explain the various stages of the creative process".

As an answer, this student wrote the following:

"The creative process is believed to take place in five
stages, in the following order: ORIENTATION, when the
problem must be identified and defined, PREPARATION, when
all the possible information about the problem is
collected, INCUBATION, when there is a period where no
solution seems in sight and the person is often busy with
other tasks, ILLUMINATION, when the person experiences
a general idea of how to arrive at a solution to the
problem, and finally VERIFICATION, when the person
determines whether the solution is the right one for the

How would you judge this student' s answer?

     1. EXCELLENT (all stages correct in the right order
          with clear and correct explanations)
     2. GOOD (all stages correct in the right order, but the
          explanations are not as clear as they should be).
     3. MEDIOCRE (one or two stages are missing OR the
          stages are in the wrong order, OR the explanations
          are not clear OR the explanations are irrelevant)
     4. UNACCEPTABLE (more than two stages are missing
          AND the order is incorrect AND the explanations
          are not clear AND/OR they are irrelevant)

In the above question, one is expected to make value judgment on the content
of the given text (KNOWLEDGE of the subject is required), the meaning of
the terminology used (COMPREHENSION of the subject matter), and its structure
(ANALYSIS of the answer for the right order of events. The correct answer
here is #1, but suitable modification of the putative student answer could
provide a small bank of questions with other correct answers

Example C2.5.2

Another example is the "Assertion/Reason" question, in which two statements
linked by "BECAUSE" have to be evaluated in the light of certain criteria:

Judge the sentence in italics according to the criteria
given below:

"The United States took part in the Gulf War against Iraq
BECAUSE of the lack of civil liberties imposed on the Kurds
by Saddam Hussein's regime."

     a.   The assertion and the reason are both correct, and the
            reason is valid.
     b.   The assertion and the reason are both correct, but the
            reason is invalid.
     c    The assertion is correct but the reason is incorrect.
     d.   The assertion is incorrect but the reason is correct.
     e.   Both the assertion and the reason are incorrect.

The correct answer is "b", since while it is true that the United States took part in the Gulf War, it is also true that the Kurds in Iraq did not (and still do not) enjoy an abundance of civil liberties, but the threat to the US's oil supply as a result of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait was a much more pertinent reason for the United States joining in the fray. A knowledge and understanding of Middle East politics is assumed. What is tested here is the ability to evaluate the between cause and effect in the sentence in terms of predefined criteria.

Link source -

More links to assessment examples:

FAQ on Outcomes Assessment
Source of PDF below is -

Powerpoint Presentation about Outcome-based Education
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